International

The Fall of Constantinople (1453)

To mark the end of the Byzantine Empire and the rise of the Ottoman Empire under Mehmed the Conqueror, the city of Constantinople fell to the Ottomans in 1453. The powerful walls of Constantinople fell after a 53-day siege, triggering a ferocious and chaotic struggle within the city itself. The victory was significant because it marked the beginning of the end for a once-great empire and made it easier for Ottoman power to sweep across Europe.

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Australian Penal Colonies

The British Empire’s attitude to criminal punishment and colonialism is reflected in Australia’s notorious penal camps. In an effort to relieve prison overcrowding, the British government began sending criminals to Australia beginning in 1788. With the dual goals of creating a disciplined workforce and spreading British influence, the British established penal colonies like Port Jackson (now Sydney) in New South Wales.

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Captain James Cook

Famous for his explorations in the 18th century, British explorer and navigator Captain James Cook is often cited as an inspiration. After Cook’s birth in 1728, he didn’t embark on his first big trip until 1768, when he sailed the HMS Endeavour to the Pacific to witness the transit of Venus. His legendary career as an explorer began with this trip.

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History of Morocco

Morocco’s history is a colorful tapestry that incorporates elements from many different cultures. It has been around since the time of the original Berber settlers. After the Phoenicians, the Romans, and the Byzantines occupied the area, each left a distinct mark on the landscape. Cultural and religious shifts, however, were introduced by the Arab-Muslim conquest of the 7th century.

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Boxer Rebellion (1899-1901)

From 1899 to 1901, the Boxer Rebellion was a major anti-foreign and anti-Christian revolt in China. The Boxers (Righteous and Harmonious Fists) were a secret club that formed in Northern China out of frustration with foreign influence and economic hardship. They wanted to get rid of Western influences, so they set their sights on expelling foreign powers and Chinese Christians.

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Sicilian Mafia

The history of the Cosa Nostra, or Sicilian Mafia, is intricately entwined with the social and political fabric of the island. The movement emerged in the late 19th century in reaction to economic depression and tyrannical foreign authority. As time went on, the group morphed into a criminal empire that ruled over many facets of Sicilian society.

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