Battle of Apache Pass
In the context of the larger American Indian Wars, the 1861 Battle of Apache Pass in what is now southeastern Arizona was a key combat during the American Civil War. During the Civil War, Apache warriors fought against the California Column, a unit of the Union Army entrusted with guarding the western boundary.
The strategic value of Apache Pass stemmed from its role as a vital corridor for trade and communication in the region of the American Southwest. The Apache warriors attacked the Union troops and their supply wagons multiple times, led by Chiricahua Apache leader Cochise and Mangas Coloradas. Lieutenant Colonel William W. Loring led the California Column to victory against the Apache.
Though less well-known than other Civil War battles, the Battle of Apache Pass exemplifies the complex and multifaceted nature of the American Civil War, in which many Native American groups became embroiled due to the threat to their ancestral lands and way of life from both Union and Confederate forces.