Ancient Egypt, one of the world’s most enduring civilizations, emerged around 3100 BCE when Upper and Lower Egypt were unified under the rule of King Narmer. It thrived for over 3,000 years along the banks of the Nile River, shaping history, culture, and religion in profound ways.
The Nile, with its annual flooding, provided fertile soil for agriculture, enabling surplus food production. This stability allowed the Egyptians to build monumental structures like the pyramids, which served as tombs for pharaohs. The Old Kingdom saw the construction of the Great Pyramid at Giza, a testament to their engineering prowess.
Egyptian society was structured hierarchically, with the pharaoh at the top, considered a divine ruler. They practiced polytheism, worshipping gods like Ra, Osiris, and Isis. The Rosetta Stone, discovered in 1799, played a pivotal role in deciphering hieroglyphics, unlocking the secrets of their rich literature and historical records.
In 30 BCE, Egypt fell to the Romans, ending its independence. The legacy of ancient Egypt endures through its art, architecture, and contributions to mathematics, medicine, and astronomy, making it an endlessly captivating subject of study.